CICOIN is a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digital money. It is the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment network that is powered by its users with no central authority or middlemen. From a user perspective, CICOIN is pretty much like cash for the Internet. CICOIN can also be seen as the most prominent triple entry bookkeeping system in existence.
Nobody owns the CICOIN network much like no one owns the technology behind email. CICOIN is controlled by all CICOIN users around the world. While developers are improving the software, they can’t force a change in the CICOIN protocol because all users are free to choose what software and version they use. In order to stay compatible with each other, all users need to use software complying with the same rules. CICOIN can only work correctly with a complete consensus among all users. Therefore, all users and developers have a strong incentive to protect this consensus.
From a user perspective, CICOIN is nothing more than a mobile app or computer program that provides a personal CICOIN wallet and allows a user to send and receive CICOIN with them. This is how CICOIN works for most users.
Behind the scenes, the CICOIN network is sharing a public ledger called the “block chain”. This ledger contains every transaction ever processed, allowing a user’s computer to verify the validity of each transaction. The authenticity of each transaction is protected by digital signatures corresponding to the sending addresses, allowing all users to have full control over sending CICOIN from their own CICOIN addresses. In addition, anyone can process transactions using the computing power of specialized hardware and earn a reward in CICOIN for this service. This is often called “mining”. To learn more about CICOIN, you can consult the dedicated page and the original paper.
Much of the trust in CICOIN comes from the fact that it requires no trust at all. CICOIN is fully open-source and decentralized. This means that anyone has access to the entire source code at any time. Any developer in the world can therefore verify exactly how CICOIN works. All transactions and CICOIN issued into existence can be transparently consulted in real-time by anyone. All payments can be made without reliance on a third party and the whole system is protected by heavily peer-reviewed cryptographic algorithms like those used for online banking. No organization or individual can control CICOIN, and the network remains secure even if not all of its users can be trusted.
You should never expect to get rich with CICOIN or any emerging technology. It is always important to be wary of anything that sounds too good to be true or disobeys basic economic rules.
CICOIN is a growing space of innovation and there are business opportunities that also include risks. There is no guarantee that CICOIN will continue to grow even though it has developed at a very fast rate so far. Investing time and resources on anything related to CICOIN requires entrepreneurship. There are various ways to make money with CICOIN such as mining, speculation or running new businesses. All of these methods are competitive and there is no guarantee of profit. It is up to each individual to make a proper evaluation of the costs and the risks involved in any such project.
CICOIN is as virtual as the credit cards and online banking networks people use everyday. CICOIN can be used to pay online and in physical stores just like any other form of money. CICOIN can also be exchanged in physical form such as the Denarium coins, but paying with a mobile phone usually remains more convenient. CICOIN balances are stored in a large distributed network, and they cannot be fraudulently altered by anybody. In other words, CICOIN users have exclusive control over their funds and CICOIN cannot vanish just because they are virtual.
CICOIN is designed to allow its users to send and receive payments with an acceptable level of privacy as well as any other form of money. However, CICOIN is not anonymous and cannot offer the same level of privacy as cash. The use of CICOIN leaves extensive public records. Various mechanisms exist to protect users’ privacy, and more are in development. However, there is still work to be done before these features are used correctly by most CICOIN users.
Some concerns have been raised that private transactions could be used for illegal purposes with CICOIN. However, it is worth noting that CICOIN will undoubtedly be subjected to similar regulations that are already in place inside existing financial systems. CICOIN cannot be more anonymous than cash and it is not likely to prevent criminal investigations from being conducted. Additionally, CICOIN is also designed to prevent a large range of financial crimes.
When a user loses his wallet, it has the effect of removing money out of circulation. Lost CICOIN still remain in the block chain just like any other CICOIN. However, lost CICOIN remain dormant forever because there is no way for anybody to find the private key(s) that would allow them to be spent again. Because of the law of supply and demand, when fewer CICOIN are available, the ones that are left will be in higher demand and increase in value to compensate.
The CICOIN network can already process a much higher number of transactions per second than it does today. It is, however, not entirely ready to scale to the level of major credit card networks. Work is underway to lift current limitations, and future requirements are well known. Since inception, every aspect of the CICOIN network has been in a continuous process of maturation, optimization, and specialization, and it should be expected to remain that way for some years to come. As traffic grows, more CICOIN users may use lightweight clients, and full network nodes may become a more specialized service. For more details, see the Scalability page on the Wiki.
CICOIN payments are easier to make than debit or credit card purchases, and can be received without a merchant account. Payments are made from a wallet application, either on your computer or smartphone, by entering the recipient’s address, the payment amount, and pressing send
To the best of our knowledge, CICOIN has not been made illegal by legislation in most jurisdictions. However, some jurisdictions (such as Argentina and Russia) severely restrict or ban foreign currencies. Other jurisdictions (such as Thailand) may limit the licensing of certain entities such as CICOIN exchanges.
Regulators from various jurisdictions are taking steps to provide individuals and businesses with rules on how to integrate this new technology with the formal, regulated financial system. For example, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), a bureau in the United States Treasury Department, issued non-binding guidance on how it characterizes certain activities involving virtual currencies.
CICOIN is money, and money has always been used both for legal and illegal purposes. Cash, credit cards and current banking systems widely surpass CICOIN in terms of their use to finance crime. CICOIN can bring significant innovation in payment systems and the benefits of such innovation are often considered to be far beyond their potential drawbacks.
CICOIN is designed to be a huge step forward in making money more secure and could also act as a significant protection against many forms of financial crime. For instance, CICOIN are completely impossible to counterfeit. Users are in full control of their payments and cannot receive unapproved charges such as with credit card fraud. CICOIN transactions are irreversible and immune to fraudulent chargebacks. CICOIN allows money to be secured against theft and loss using very strong and useful mechanisms such as backups, encryption, and multiple signatures.
Some concerns have been raised that CICOIN could be more attractive to criminals because it can be used to make private and irreversible payments. However, these features already exist with cash and wire transfer, which are widely used and well-established. The use of CICOIN will undoubtedly be subjected to similar regulations that are already in place inside existing financial systems, and CICOIN is not likely to prevent criminal investigations from being conducted. In general, it is common for important breakthroughs to be perceived as being controversial before their benefits are well understood. The Internet is a good example among many others to illustrate this.
The CICOIN protocol itself cannot be modified without the cooperation of nearly all its users, who choose what software they use. Attempting to assign special rights to a local authority in the rules of the global CICOIN network is not a practical possibility. Any rich organization could choose to invest in mining hardware to control half of the computing power of the network and become able to block or reverse recent transactions. However, there is no guarantee that they could retain this power since this requires to invest as much than all other miners in the world.
It is however possible to regulate the use of CICOIN in a similar way to any other instrument. Just like the dollar, CICOIN can be used for a wide variety of purposes, some of which can be considered legitimate or not as per each jurisdiction’s laws. In this regard, CICOIN is no different than any other tool or resource and can be subjected to different regulations in each country. CICOIN use could also be made difficult by restrictive regulations, in which case it is hard to determine what percentage of users would keep using the technology. A government that chooses to ban CICOIN would prevent domestic businesses and markets from developing, shifting innovation to other countries. The challenge for regulators, as always, is to develop efficient solutions while not impairing the growth of new emerging markets and businesses.
CICOIN is not a fiat currency with legal tender status in any jurisdiction, but often tax liability accrues regardless of the medium used. There is a wide variety of legislation in many different jurisdictions which could cause income, sales, payroll, capital gains, or some other form of tax liability to arise with CICOIN.
CICOIN is freeing people to transact on their own terms. Each user can send and receive payments in a similar way to cash but they can also take part in more complex contracts. Multiple signatures allow a transaction to be accepted by the network only if a certain number of a defined group of persons agree to sign the transaction. This allows innovative dispute mediation services to be developed in the future. Such services could allow a third party to approve or reject a transaction in case of disagreement between the other parties without having control on their money. As opposed to cash and other payment methods, CICOIN always leaves a public proof that a transaction did take place, which can potentially be used in a recourse against businesses with fraudulent practices.
It is also worth noting that while merchants usually depend on their public reputation to remain in business and pay their employees, they don’t have access to the same level of information when dealing with new consumers. The way CICOIN works allows both individuals and businesses to be protected against fraudulent chargebacks while giving the choice to the consumer to ask for more protection when they are not willing to trust a particular merchant.
New CICOIN are generated by a competitive and decentralized process called “mining”. This process involves that individuals are rewarded by the network for their services. CICOIN miners are processing transactions and securing the network using specialized hardware and are collecting new CICOIN in exchange.
The CICOIN protocol is designed in such a way that new CICOIN are created at a fixed rate. This makes CICOIN mining a very competitive business. When more miners join the network, it becomes increasingly difficult to make a profit and miners must seek efficiency to cut their operating costs. No central authority or developer has any power to control or manipulate the system to increase their profits. Every CICOIN node in the world will reject anything that does not comply with the rules it expects the system to follow.
CICOIN are created at a decreasing and predictable rate. The number of new CICOIN created each year is automatically halved over time until CICOIN issuance halts completely with a total of 18 million CICOIN in existence. At this point, CICOIN miners will probably be supported exclusively by numerous small transaction fees.
CICOIN have value because they are useful as a form of money. CICOIN has the characteristics of money (durability, portability, fungibility, scarcity, divisibility, and recognizability) based on the properties of mathematics rather than relying on physical properties (like gold and silver) or trust in central authorities (like fiat currencies). In short, CICOIN is backed by mathematics. With these attributes, all that is required for a form of money to hold value is trust and adoption. In the case of CICOIN, this can be measured by its growing base of users, merchants, and startups. As with all currency, CICOIN value comes only and directly from people willing to accept them as payment.
The price of a CICOIN is determined by supply and demand. When demand for CICOIN increases, the price increases, and when demand falls, the price falls. There is only a limited number of CICOIN in circulation and new CICOIN are created at a predictable and decreasing rate, which means that demand must follow this level of inflation to keep the price stable. Because CICOIN is still a relatively small market compared to what it could be, it doesn’t take significant amounts of money to move the market price up or down, and thus the price of a CICOIN is still very volatile.
A fast rise in price does not constitute a bubble. An artificial over-valuation that will lead to a sudden downward correction constitutes a bubble. Choices based on individual human action by hundreds of thousands of market participants is the cause for CICOIN price to fluctuate as the market seeks price discovery. Reasons for changes in sentiment may include a loss of confidence in CICOIN, a large difference between value and price not based on the fundamentals of the CICOIN economy, increased press coverage stimulating speculative demand, fear of uncertainty, and old-fashioned irrational exuberance and greed.
A Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to its investors from their own money, or the money paid by subsequent investors, instead of from profit earned by the individuals running the business. Ponzi schemes are designed to collapse at the expense of the last investors when there is not enough new participants.
CICOIN is a free software project with no central authority. Consequently, no one is in a position to make fraudulent representations about investment returns. Like other major currencies such as gold, United States dollar, euro, yen, etc. there is no guaranteed purchasing power and the exchange rate floats freely. This leads to volatility where owners of CICOIN can unpredictably make or lose money. Beyond speculation, CICOIN is also a payment system with useful and competitive attributes that are being used by thousands of users and businesses.
Some early adopters have large numbers of CICOIN because they took risks and invested time and resources in an unproven technology that was hardly used by anyone and that was much harder to secure properly. Many early adopters spent large numbers of CICOIN quite a few times before they became valuable or bought only small amounts and didn’t make huge gains. There is no guarantee that the price of a CICOIN will increase or drop. This is very similar to investing in an early startup that can either gain value through its usefulness and popularity, or just never break through. CICOIN is still in its infancy, and it has been designed with a very long-term view; it is hard to imagine how it could be less biased towards early adopters, and today’s users may or may not be the early adopters of tomorrow.
CICOIN is unique in that only 18 million CICOIN will ever be created. However, this will never be a limitation because transactions can be denominated in smaller sub-units of a CICOIN, such as bits – there are 1,000,000 bits in 1 CICOIN. CICOIN can be divided up to 8 decimal places (0.000 000 01) and potentially even smaller units if that is ever required in the future as the average transaction size decreases.
This is a chicken and egg situation. For CICOIN price to stabilize, a large scale economy needs to develop with more businesses and users. For a large scale economy to develop, businesses and users will seek for price stability.
Fortunately, volatility does not affect the main benefits of CICOIN as a payment system to transfer money from point A to point B. It is possible for businesses to convert CICOIN payments to their local currency instantly, allowing them to profit from the advantages of CICOIN without being subjected to price fluctuations. Since CICOIN offers many useful and unique features and properties, many users choose to use CICOIN. With such solutions and incentives, it is possible that CICOIN will mature and develop to a degree where price volatility will become limited.
Only a fraction of CICOIN issued to date are found on the exchange markets for sale. CICOIN markets are competitive, meaning the price of a CICOIN will rise or fall depending on supply and demand. Additionally, new CICOIN will continue to be issued for decades to come. Therefore even the most determined buyer could not buy all the CICOIN in existence. This situation isn’t to suggest, however, that the markets aren’t vulnerable to price manipulation; it still doesn’t take significant amounts of money to move the market price up or down, and thus CICOIN remains a volatile asset thus far.
That can happen. For now, CICOIN remains by far the most popular decentralized virtual currency, but there can be no guarantee that it will retain that position. There is already a set of alternative currencies inspired by CICOIN. It is however probably correct to assume that significant improvements would be required for a new currency to overtake CICOIN in terms of established market, even though this remains unpredictable. CICOIN could also conceivably adopt improvements of a competing currency so long as it doesn’t change fundamental parts of the protocol.
Receiving notification of a payment is almost instant with CICOIN. However, there is a delay before the network begins to confirm your transaction by including it in a block. A confirmation means that there is a consensus on the network that the CICOIN you received haven’t been sent to anyone else and are considered your property. Once your transaction has been included in one block, it will continue to be buried under every block after it, which will exponentially consolidate this consensus and decrease the risk of a reversed transaction. Each confirmation takes between a few seconds and 90 minutes, with 10 minutes being the average. If the transaction pays too low a fee or is otherwise atypical, getting the first confirmation can take much longer. Every user is free to determine at what point they consider a transaction sufficiently confirmed, but 6 confirmations is often considered to be as safe as waiting 6 months on a credit card transaction.
This works fine. The CICOIN will appear next time you start your wallet application. CICOIN are not actually received by the software on your computer, they are appended to a public ledger that is shared between all the devices on the network. If you are sent CICOIN when your wallet client program is not running and you later launch it, it will download blocks and catch up with any transactions it did not already know about, and the CICOIN will eventually appear as if they were just received in real time. Your wallet is only needed when you wish to spend CICOIN.
Long synchronization time is only required with full node clients like CICOIN Core. Technically speaking, synchronizing is the process of downloading and verifying all previous CICOIN transactions on the network. For some CICOIN clients to calculate the spendable balance of your CICOIN wallet and make new transactions, it needs to be aware of all previous transactions. This step can be resource intensive and requires sufficient bandwidth and storage to accommodate the full size of the block chain. For CICOIN to remain secure, enough people should keep using full node clients because they perform the task of validating and relaying transactions.
Mining is the process of spending computing power to process transactions, secure the network, and keep everyone in the system synchronized together. It can be perceived like the CICOIN data center except that it has been designed to be fully decentralized with miners operating in all countries and no individual having control over the network. This process is referred to as “mining” as an analogy to gold mining because it is also a temporary mechanism used to issue new CICOIN. Unlike gold mining, however, CICOIN mining provides a reward in exchange for useful services required to operate a secure payment network. Mining will still be required after the last CICOIN is issued.
Anybody can become a CICOIN miner by running software with specialized hardware. Mining software listens for transactions broadcast through the peer-to-peer network and performs appropriate tasks to process and confirm these transactions. CICOIN miners perform this work because they can earn transaction fees paid by users for faster transaction processing, and newly created CICOIN issued into existence according to a fixed formula.
For new transactions to be confirmed, they need to be included in a block along with a mathematical proof of work. Such proofs are very hard to generate because there is no way to create them other than by trying billions of calculations per second. This requires miners to perform these calculations before their blocks are accepted by the network and before they are rewarded. As more people start to mine, the difficulty of finding valid blocks is automatically increased by the network to ensure that the average time to find a block remains equal to 10 minutes. As a result, mining is a very competitive business where no individual miner can control what is included in the block chain.
The proof of work is also designed to depend on the previous block to force a chronological order in the block chain. This makes it exponentially difficult to reverse previous transactions because this requires the recalculation of the proofs of work of all the subsequent blocks. When two blocks are found at the same time, miners work on the first block they receive and switch to the longest chain of blocks as soon as the next block is found. This allows mining to secure and maintain a global consensus based on processing power.
CICOIN miners are neither able to cheat by increasing their own reward nor process fraudulent transactions that could corrupt the CICOIN network because all CICOIN nodes would reject any block that contains invalid data as per the rules of the CICOIN protocol. Consequently, the network remains secure even if not all CICOIN miners can be trusted.
Spending energy to secure and operate a payment system is hardly a waste. Like any other payment service, the use of CICOIN entails processing costs. Services necessary for the operation of currently widespread monetary systems, such as banks, credit cards, and armored vehicles, also use a lot of energy. Although unlike CICOIN, their total energy consumption is not transparent and cannot be as easily measured.
CICOIN mining has been designed to become more optimized over time with specialized hardware consuming less energy, and the operating costs of mining should continue to be proportional to demand. When CICOIN mining becomes too competitive and less profitable, some miners choose to stop their activities. Furthermore, all energy expended mining is eventually transformed into heat, and the most profitable miners will be those who have put this heat to good use. An optimally efficient mining network is one that isn’t actually consuming any extra energy. While this is an ideal, the economics of mining are such that miners individually strive toward it.
Mining creates the equivalent of a competitive lottery that makes it very difficult for anyone to consecutively add new blocks of transactions into the block chain. This protects the neutrality of the network by preventing any individual from gaining the power to block certain transactions. This also prevents any individual from replacing parts of the block chain to roll back their own spends, which could be used to defraud other users. Mining makes it exponentially more difficult to reverse a past transaction by requiring the rewriting of all blocks following this transaction.
In the early days of CICOIN, anyone could find a new block using their computer’s CPU. As more and more people started mining, the difficulty of finding new blocks increased greatly to the point where the only cost-effective method of mining today is using specialized hardware.